Shoulder pain is a common complaint, with potential origins stemming from various structures within the shoulder including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, or muscles. Common causes include rotator cuff injuries, arthritis, frozen shoulder, and fractures, among others (1). It’s essential to consider all potential causes and conditions, especially when common remedies do not alleviate the pain.

Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a type of inflammatory arthritis primarily affecting the spine. It leads to chronic inflammation, which can cause the spine’s vertebrae to fuse together, leading to a hunched-forward posture in advanced stages (2). Primary symptoms include pain and stiffness in the lower back, buttocks, and hips, especially in the morning or after periods of inactivity. In some cases, AS can also affect other joints, including the shoulders.

Understanding Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is not just another form of arthritis but a unique condition with distinct characteristics. This chronic inflammatory disease primarily attacks the spine but can manifest in various ways throughout the body. Grasping its definition, prevalence, and effects is vital for both patients and medical professionals.

Definition and Description of AS

At its most basic, Ankylosing Spondylitis is an inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton, primarily impacting the spine. The name itself gives away much of its nature:

Ankylosis: Refers to the fusion of the bones. Over time, new bone forms as a response to inflammation, leading to fusion of the vertebrae, which can impair posture and movement (2).

Spondylitis: Signifies inflammation of the vertebrae.

As the disease progresses, the spine’s flexibility can decrease, leading to a forward-stooped posture. While this is one of the more visual manifestations of AS, the disease’s impact is far more profound and widespread than just this physical change.

Prevalence of AS

Ankylosing Spondylitis isn’t a rare condition. Depending on the region:

  • Studies indicate that AS affects up to 0.5% of the adult population in the Western world (2).
  • Onset usually occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. It’s noteworthy that while the symptoms might start early, diagnosis can sometimes take years due to the overlap of symptoms with other conditions.
  • The disease exhibits a gender bias, with men being two to three times more likely to develop AS than women. This doesn’t mean women are safe from AS; they too can be affected, often with varying symptoms.

How AS Affects the Body, Specifically Joints

How AS Affects the Body Specifically Joints

The systemic nature of AS means it has the potential to impact more than just the spine:

Spinal Involvement: The inflammation usually begins at the base of the spine, particularly the sacroiliac joints where the spine connects to the pelvis. This inflammation can lead to chronic pain, and as it persists, the vertebrae might begin to fuse, limiting flexibility.

Peripheral Joints: While the spine is a primary target, AS can also affect other joints in the body. The larger joints, such as hips and shoulders, are particularly vulnerable. Approximately 30-50% of patients with AS experience shoulder involvement at some point during the disease progression (4). Inflammation in these joints can result in pain, stiffness, and even deformities in prolonged cases.

Entheses: AS has a peculiar tendency to inflame the sites where tendons and ligaments attach to bones, a condition called enthesitis. This can cause pain and tenderness in various parts of the body, from the back of the heel to the ribs.

Read More: Why Do Some Lung Cancer Patients Experience Shoulder Pain

Common Symptoms of Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is characterized by a distinct set of symptoms that help in its diagnosis and differentiation from other similar conditions. While the range of symptoms can vary among individuals, there are key signs that are commonly associated with AS.

Hallmark Signs and Symptoms of Ankylosing Spondylitis

Hallmark Signs and Symptoms of Ankylosing Spondylitis

1. Chronic Back Pain: Perhaps the most defining symptom, the back pain associated with AS is distinct:

  • It’s a deep, aching pain, usually focused in the lower back but can progress upwards.
  • The pain is typically more pronounced after periods of rest or inactivity, such as after sleeping, and tends to decrease with physical activity (5).

2. Morning Stiffness:

  • This stiffness can last for an hour or more after waking up.
  • Unlike typical stiffness we might feel occasionally, this is persistent and can be debilitating, affecting the person’s ability to carry out morning routines.

3. Night Pain:

  • Many AS patients find that they are woken up during the night due to the pain.
  • This discomfort often forces individuals to move or adjust positions frequently during sleep, affecting sleep quality.

4. Reduced Spinal Mobility:

  • As the disease progresses and inflammation continues, the spine’s flexibility is gradually compromised.
  • Over time, the inflammation might lead to fusion of the vertebrae, causing a permanent decrease in spinal mobility (6).

5. Fatigue:

  • A general feeling of tiredness is common in AS patients.
  • It’s a result of the body’s ongoing battle with inflammation, affecting both physical and mental energy levels (7).

6. Enthesitis:

  • This refers to inflammation where tendons and ligaments attach to bones.
  • It can cause localized pain and tenderness, often being mistaken for more common issues like plantar fasciitis when it affects the heel.

7. Eye Inflammation (Uveitis or Iritis):

  • A less frequent but serious symptom where the eye becomes inflamed (Uveitis).
  • Symptoms can include pain, redness, and blurred vision (8).

8. Gastrointestinal Involvement: Some people might develop inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis (9).

Emphasizing Pain and Stiffness, especially in the Spine

While AS affects multiple facets of an individual’s health, pain and stiffness, particularly in the spine, are undeniably at the heart of the disease. This inflammatory back pain differs from mechanical back pain; it tends to be more persistent, gets worse with rest, and improves with activity (10). The spine is central to our body’s function, and the persistent inflammation within it translates to consistent pain and a gradual loss of mobility. These symptoms:

  • Are often the first indicators of the disease, prompting individuals to seek medical advice.
  • Can profoundly impact daily activities, from tying shoes to simply sitting down.
  • Highlight the progressive nature of AS. Without timely intervention, the spinal symptoms can intensify, leading to the eventual fusion of the vertebrae and the characteristic stooped posture.

Understanding these symptoms and their profound impact on individuals with AS emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis, effective management, and continuous research into this debilitating condition.

Read More: The Role of Surgery in Treating Lumbar Disc Herniation

Ankylosing Spondylitis and Shoulder Pain

While Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is primarily associated with spinal inflammation, its effects can radiate to other parts of the body, including the shoulders. Understanding the connection between AS and shoulder pain can aid in diagnosis, management, and the overall well-being of affected individuals.

Detailed Exploration of How and Why AS Might Lead to Shoulder Pain

1. Joint Involvement Beyond the Spine: While AS primarily affects the axial skeleton (i.e., spine), over time, inflammation can spread to peripheral joints. The shoulder, being a major joint, can become inflamed, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility. The exact cause of this is not entirely clear, but it may be due to the immune system’s overactive response causing inflammation in these peripheral joints (7).

2. Enthesitis: AS has a proclivity to inflame where tendons and ligaments connect to bones. The shoulders, with a complex network of tendons and ligaments, can be particularly vulnerable to this inflammation.

3. Structural Changes: Continuous inflammation in the shoulder joints might lead to structural changes, further aggravating pain and discomfort.

Discussion on Inflammation in Shoulder Joints

The shoulder joint, also known as the glenohumeral joint, is a ball-and-socket joint, with the head of the humerus (arm bone) fitting into the glenoid cavity of the scapula (shoulder blade). This design allows for a wide range of motion but can also be a site of inflammation in conditions like AS. Inflammation in the shoulder joints due to AS might manifest as synovitis (inflammation of the joint lining) or enthesitis (inflammation where tendons and ligaments attach to bones). Over time, this can lead to structural damage, pain, and loss of function (11).

  • Synovitis: Like other joints affected by AS, the synovial membrane in the shoulder can become inflamed, leading to pain and swelling. Over time, this can degrade the cartilage and erode the bone, causing more pain and reducing joint function.
  • Capsulitis: The joint capsule, which surrounds the shoulder joint, can become inflamed. This inflammation restricts the shoulder’s movement, leading to a condition commonly referred to as “frozen shoulder.”

Comparing AS-Related Shoulder Pain to Other Common Causes of Shoulder Discomfort

Comparing AS-Related Shoulder Pain to Other Common Causes of Shoulder Discomfort

1. Rotator Cuff Injury: A frequent source of shoulder pain, this involves the tendons and muscles that keep the head of the humerus in the shoulder socket. These often present with pain while lifting or moving the arm, weakness in the shoulder, and a cracking sensation when moving the shoulder in certain positions (12).

2. Osteoarthritis: Commonly called wear-and-tear arthritis, shoulder osteoarthritis can cause pain, swelling, and reduced range of motion. The pain often intensifies with activity (13).

3. Bursitis: Bursitis of the shoulder happens when the bursa, a fluid-filled sac that reduces friction in the joints, becomes inflamed. Symptoms include pain, swelling, and tenderness (14).

4. Tendonitis: Inflammation of the tendons in the shoulder, often due to overuse. Pain is usually sharp and associated with specific movements.

In comparison, AS-related shoulder pain:

  • Is deep and aching, similar to the back pain experienced with this condition.
  • Is often accompanied by stiffness, especially after periods of inactivity.
  • Might not be tied to specific movements or activities.

Recognizing the difference between AS-related shoulder pain and other common causes is crucial. While some symptoms overlap, the chronic, persistent nature of AS pain, coupled with other systemic symptoms of the disease, can help differentiate it. Proper diagnosis leads to targeted treatments, providing relief and improved quality of life for affected individuals.

Importance of Medical Imaging and Diagnostics in Differentiation

Radiographs (X rays)

1. Radiographs (X-rays): Can show structural changes in joints. For instance, evidence of joint space narrowing or bony proliferations suggest osteoarthritis, while sacroiliac joint changes might hint at AS.

2. MRI:

  • Especially useful for ‘AS’ as it can visualize early inflammatory changes in joints, even before structural changes appear.
  • Can detect soft tissue abnormalities like rotator cuff tears or bursitis.

3. Blood Tests:

  • Certain markers, such as the HLA-B27 gene, are often present in those with AS (4).
  • Elevated inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein (CRP) or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) can support an AS diagnosis.

4. Physical Examination:

  • Assessing the range of motion, joint tenderness, and swelling can help in differentiating causes of shoulder pain.
  • Specific tests performed by healthcare professionals can indicate rotator cuff issues or other mechanical shoulder problems.

5. Patient History: Patterns of pain, onset, associated symptoms, and family history can provide essential clues. For instance, a family history of AS or other autoimmune diseases can be significant.

Read More: Can Injections Trigger Frozen Shoulder? A Deep Dive into Adhesive Capsulitis

Management and Treatment of AS-Related Shoulder Pain

Shoulder pain associated with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) can be debilitating, affecting an individual’s quality of life. Effective management of this pain requires a comprehensive approach that encompasses medical intervention, physical therapies, and lifestyle adjustments.

Overview of Medical and Physical Therapies Available

1. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs):

  • The primary medical treatment for pain and inflammation related to AS.
  • Examples include ibuprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac.

2. Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs):

  • Used for individuals who don’t respond to NSAIDs alone.
  • Examples include methotrexate or sulfasalazine.

3. Biologic Agents: These are newer therapies targeting specific parts of the immune response. Examples include:

  • TNF-alpha inhibitors (e.g., adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept) (2).
  • IL-17 inhibitors (e.g., secukinumab)
Physical Therapy

4. Physical Therapy: A cornerstone of AS management. A tailored program can help:

  • Maintain and improve joint range of motion.
  • Strengthen supporting muscles (15).
  • Provide pain relief through modalities like heat or cold therapy.

5. Joint Injections:

  • Corticosteroids can be injected directly into the shoulder joint for relief.
  • Provides temporary pain relief and reduction of inflammation.

6. Surgery: In rare cases where there’s significant joint damage or deformity, surgical intervention might be considered.

Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment

1. Preventing Progression:

  • Early treatment can help slow the progression of AS, potentially preventing more severe complications like joint fusion (16).

2. Maintaining Mobility:

  • Timely intervention ensures better maintenance of joint mobility, reducing the risk of permanent stiffness or deformity.

3. Quality of Life:

  • Addressing pain and stiffness early on allows individuals to continue their daily activities with minimal disruption.

4. Reducing Long-Term Medication Use:

  • Effective early treatment may reduce the need for long-term or high-dose medication, limiting potential side effects.

Lifestyle Modifications to Help Manage and Reduce Pain

Regular Exercise

1. Regular Exercise: Engaging in daily exercises, especially those that promote flexibility like yoga and pilates, can help maintain joint mobility and reduce stiffness.

2. Good Posture: Practicing good posture is crucial. Regularly checking and correcting one’s posture can help prevent spinal deformities.

3. Heat and Cold Therapy: Applying heat can help relax and loosen tissues, alleviating pain. Cold can reduce inflammation and numb the area.

4. Ergonomic Workspaces: Adjusting workstations, using ergonomic chairs, and taking regular breaks can help reduce stress on the shoulder and spine.

5. Healthy Diet: Eating an anti-inflammatory diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and vitamins can support joint health.

6. Limiting Strain: Using supportive devices or modifying tasks to reduce strain on the shoulder can help in pain management.

7. Stress Reduction: Techniques like meditation, deep breathing, and mindfulness can help manage the emotional and psychological aspects of living with chronic pain.

8. Sleep Position: Using the right mattress and pillows can make a significant difference. Sleeping on a firm mattress and avoiding thick pillows can help maintain a straight spine.

9. Smoking Cessation: Smoking can exacerbate the symptoms of AS and hinder the efficacy of treatments.

Above all, joining support groups and getting proper sleep also play roles in overall well-being (17).

Conclusion

The connection between shoulder pain and Ankylosing Spondylitis is crucial to understand, especially as it underscores the importance of comprehensive diagnostics. Shoulder pain can often be brushed off or attributed to more common causes. However, as the personal testimonies indicate, recognizing the link can pave the way for effective treatments that drastically improve quality of life.

It’s paramount that individuals not only seek treatment for symptomatic relief but also delve deeper into understanding the root cause of their pain. Proper diagnosis can illuminate the path to appropriate interventions, leading to a better, pain-reduced life.

If you or someone you know is experiencing persistent, unexplained shoulder pain, it’s essential to seek professional medical advice. Don’t let pain become the norm. Reach out and understand its cause.

For more information on Ankylosing Spondylitis, consider visiting organizations like the Spondylitis Association of America or the National Ankylosing Spondylitis Society. Equip yourself with knowledge, and take control of your health today.

FAQ’s

  1. What is Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS)?

    Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a type of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the spine, leading to chronic pain and stiffness. Over time, it can result in the fusion of the spinal vertebrae, which can restrict movement and posture.

  2. How is AS-related shoulder pain different from other shoulder pains?

    AS-related shoulder pain is usually persistent, gets worse with rest, and may improve with activity. It might be accompanied by stiffness, particularly in the morning. In contrast, other shoulder pains, like rotator cuff injuries, may present with sharp pain during specific movements.

  3. Are there other symptoms associated with AS?

    Yes, besides shoulder and spinal pain, AS can lead to symptoms like fatigue, eye inflammation (uveitis), restricted mobility in the spine, and in advanced cases, a forward-stooped posture.

  4. How is AS diagnosed?

    Diagnosis involves a combination of clinical examination, medical history, blood tests (e.g., for the HLA-B27 marker), and imaging studies like X-rays or MRI of the spine and sacroiliac joints.

  5. What treatments are available for AS?

    Treatment options include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), biologic agents (like TNF inhibitors), physiotherapy, and exercises. Lifestyle modifications, such as maintaining good posture and avoiding smoking, can also help manage symptoms.

  6. Can shoulder exercises help in managing AS-related shoulder pain?

    Yes, physiotherapy and shoulder exercises, especially those focusing on posture and flexibility, can help maintain joint function, reduce stiffness, and alleviate pain.

  7. Is AS hereditary?

    There is a genetic component to AS, and it often runs in families. The presence of the HLA-B27 gene is associated with a higher risk of developing AS, but not everyone with this gene will get the disease.

  8. Does AS affect other joints apart from the spine and shoulders?

    While AS primarily impacts the spine, it can also affect other joints, including the hips, knees, and even smaller joints like those in the hands and feet.

  9. At what age does AS typically start?

    As usually begins in late adolescence or early adulthood, with most cases being diagnosed before the age of 45. However, its symptoms can start at any age.

  10. Can AS be cured?

    As of now, there is no cure for AS. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, the symptoms can be managed effectively, and progression of the disease can be slowed.

References

1. Linsell, L., Dawson, J., Zondervan, K., Rose, P., Randall, T., Fitzpatrick, R. and Carr, A., 2006. Prevalence and incidence of adults consulting for shoulder conditions in UK primary care; patterns of diagnosis and referral. Rheumatology, 45(2), pp.215-221.
https://academic.oup.com/rheumatology/article-abstract/45/2/215/1784524

2. Braun, J. and Sieper, J., 2007. Ankylosing spondylitis. The Lancet, 369(9570), pp.1379-1390.
https://www.thelancet.com/article/S0140-6736(07)60635-7/abstract

3. Dean, L.E., Jones, G.T., MacDonald, A.G., Downham, C., Sturrock, R.D. and Macfarlane, G.J., 2014. Global prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatology, 53(4), pp.650-657.
https://academic.oup.com/rheumatology/article-abstract/53/4/650/1841972

4. Van + Linden, S.V.D., Valkenburg, H.A. and Cats, A., 1984. Evaluation of diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 27(4), pp.361-368.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/art.1780270401

5. Rudwaleit, M.V., van der Heijde, D., Landewé, R., Akkoc, N., Brandt, J., Chou, C.T., Dougados, M., Huang, F., Gu, J., Kirazli, Y. and Van den Bosch, F., 2011. The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society classification criteria for peripheral spondyloarthritis and for spondyloarthritis in general. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 70(1), pp.25-31.
https://ard.bmj.com/content/70/1/25.short

6. van der Heijde, D., Sieper, J., Maksymowych, W.P., Dougados, M., Burgos-Vargas, R., Landewé, R., Rudwaleit, M., Braun, J. and Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society, 2011. 2010 Update of the international ASAS recommendations for the use of anti-TNF agents in patients with axial spondyloarthritis. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 70(6), pp.905-908.
https://ard.bmj.com/content/70/6/905.short

7. Baraliakos, X. and Braun, J., 2015. Non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis: what are the similarities and differences?. RMD open, 1(Suppl 1), p.e000053.
https://rmdopen.bmj.com/content/1/Suppl_1/e000053.abstract

8. Rosenbaum + Pandey A, Ravindran V. Ocular Manifestations of Spondyloarthritis. Mediterr J Rheumatol. 2023 Mar 31;34(1):24-29. doi: 10.31138/mjr.34.1.24. PMID: 37223599; PMCID: PMC10201097.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10201097/

9. Stolwijk, C., Essers, I., van Tubergen, A., Boonen, A., Bazelier, M.T., De Bruin, M.L. and de Vries, F., 2015. The epidemiology of extra-articular manifestations in ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based matched cohort study. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 74(7), pp.1373-1378.
https://ard.bmj.com/content/74/7/1373.short

10. Rudwaleit, M., Khan, M.A. and Sieper, J., 2005. The challenge of diagnosis and classification in early ankylosing spondylitis: do we need new criteria?. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 52(4), pp.1000-1008.
http://hlab27.com/Portals/0/PDFs/21-The%20Challenge%20of%20Diagnosis%20and%20Classification%20in.pdf

11. McGonagle, D., Marzo-Ortega, H., O’connor, P., Gibbon, W., Hawkey, P., Henshaw, K. and Emery, P., 2002. Histological assessment of the early enthesitis lesion in spondyloarthropathy. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 61(6), pp.534-537.
https://ard.bmj.com/content/61/6/534.short

12. Lewis, J.S., 2009. Rotator cuff tendinopathy. British journal of sports medicine, 43(4), pp.236-241.
https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/43/4/236.short

13. Zhang, Y. and Jordan, J.M., 2010. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis. Clinics in geriatric medicine, 26(3), pp.355-369.
https://www.geriatric.theclinics.com/article/S0749-0690(10)00026-1/abstract

14. Speed CA, Hazleman BL. Calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. N Engl J Med. 1999 May 20;340(20):1582-4. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199905203402011. PMID: 10332023.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10332023/

15. Braun, J. and Sieper, J., 2007. Ankylosing spondylitis. The Lancet, 369(9570), pp.1379-1390.
https://www.thelancet.com/article/S0140-6736(07)60635-7/abstract

16. Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C., Alonso-Blanco, C., Morales-Cabezas, M. and Miangolarra-Page, J.C., 2005. Two exercise interventions for the management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled trial. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation, 84(6), pp.407-419.
https://journals.lww.com/ajpmr/Fulltext/2005/06000/Two_Exercise_Interventions_for_the_Management_of.3.aspx

17. Ward, M.M., Deodhar, A., Akl, E.A., Lui, A., Ermann, J., Gensler, L.S., Smith, J.A., Borenstein, D., Hiratzka, J., Weiss, P.F. and Inman, R.D., 2016. American College of Rheumatology/Spondylitis Association of America/Spondyloarthritis Research and Treatment Network 2015 recommendations for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatology, 68(2), pp.282-298.
https://acrjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/art.39298

18. Passalent, + Dagfinrud H, Kvien TK, Hagen KB. Physiotherapy interventions for ankylosing spondylitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;2008(1):CD002822. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002822.pub3. PMID: 18254008; PMCID: PMC8453259.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8453259/

Follow me
পরামর্শ নিতে 01975451525